By comparing data from poorly positioned stations with other stations that are properly positioned, the study determined that the temperature irregularities in the poorly positioned stations cancel one another so that their average temperature trends are “statistically indistinguishable” from the properly positioned stations.As of July 2015, no similar study has been conducted on a global basis. * From 1979–2014, the three temperate datasets posted above differed from one another by an annual average of 0.13ºF (0.07ºC).However, when the interpretation of scientific data contradicts the true history of the world as revealed in the Bible, then it’s the interpretation of the data that is at fault.It’s important to remember that we have limited data, and new discoveries have often overturned previous ‘hard facts’.The study found that water temperatures increased on average by 0.23ºF (0.13ºC) per decade between 19, while air temperatures cooled by 0.02 to 0.09ºF (0.01 to 0.06ºC) per decade during the same period. examined the locations of 1,007 of the 1,221 monitoring stations used to determine average surface temperature changes across the continental United States.The paper found that 92% of these stations are positioned in sites that can cause errors of 1.8ºF (1ºC) or more.  For example, some stations are located over asphalt (making them hotter at certain times), and others are located in partial shade (making them cooler at certain times).Natural processes absorb the equivalent of all natural emissions plus about 57% of man-made emissions, leaving an additional 16 billion metric tons of CO2 in the atmosphere each year. † In permafrost regions, perennial snow accumulations trap air bubbles that leave records of past airborne CO2 concentrations,   and because regional CO2 concentrations vary by less than 10 parts per million over the Earth, these local records are globally representative.  * Instruments located on satellites can measure certain properties of oxygen that vary with temperature.Data from these instruments is used to calculate the average temperatures of different layers of the Earth’s atmosphere.  * The lowermost layer of the atmosphere, which is called the “lower troposphere,” ranges from ground level to about five miles (8 km) high.  According to satellite data correlated and adjusted by the National Space Science and Technology Center at the University of Alabama Huntsville, the average temperature of the lower troposphere increased by 0.60ºF (0.33ºC) between the 1980s and 2000s, mostly from 1997 to 2010: * Sources of uncertainty in satellite-derived temperatures involve variations in satellite orbits, variations in measuring instruments, and variations in the calculations used to translate raw data into temperatures.  * According to temperature measurements taken near the Earth’s surface that are correlated and adjusted by NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, the Earth’s average temperature warmed by 1.5ºF (0.8ºC) between the 1880s and 2000s, mostly during 1907–19–2014: * According to temperature measurements taken near the Earth’s surface that are correlated and adjusted by the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia in the U.
D., no one has been able to account for the shadowy image of a naked 6-foot-tall man that appears on the shroud. Guillermo Gonzalez for sending me the issue of BAR with the Shroud article last November and encouraging me to act on it.Stephen Mattingly - Previously unpublished response to the article "A Letter to Hershel Shanks, Editor of BAR" by Dr.K., the Earth’s average temperature warmed by 1.4ºF (0.8ºC) between the 1850s and 2000s, mostly during 1911-19-1998: * Sources of uncertainty in surface temperature data involve “very incomplete” temperature records in the earlier years, “systematic changes in measurement methods,” “calculation and reporting errors,”       data adjustments that are performed when instruments are moved to different locations, instrument precision, instrument positioning, and missing documentation/raw data.  definitive assessment of uncertainties is impossible, because it is always possible that some unknown error has contaminated the data, and no quantitative allowance can be made for such unknowns. * Oceans constitute about 71% of the Earth’s surface. Changes in air temperature over the world’s oceans are typically based on measurements of water temperature at depths varying from less than 3 feet to more than 49 feet.  This data is combined with changes in air temperature over land areas to produce global averages.  contrasted water and air temperature changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean using three sources of measurements.One of these was a series of buoys, each containing thermometers located ten feet above the water and at one foot below the water.